(2010). (2009). To achieve control and/or eradication of invasive S. alterniflora and prevent its future invasion successfully, knowledge about the current status of S. alterniflora in Japan through a population genetic approach is thought indispensable. in the New York Metropolitan Area and Its Relevance for Marsh Restoration Ari Novy1,2, Peter E. Smouse3, Jean Marie Hartman2, Lena Struwe1,3, Josh Honig1, Chris Miller4, Melissa Alvarez5 and Stacy Bonos1 1Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, 2Department of Landscape Architecture,3Department of Ecology, Evolution & Natural Resources From this discussion, we conclude that genetic characteristics, invasion process, and route of S. alterniflora populations in Japan were as follows: 1) all S. alterniflora populations in Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto prefectures) had the same single region of origin (haplotype C4) and the derivation was presumably from the Atlantic coast of the United States; 2) haplotype C4  might have secondarily been introduced into Japan via the international trade between Japan and the East Asian countries, particularly China, and 3) it is likely that Japanese S. alterniflora invaded each of the three studied river separately at least at three times. Over the last 25 years, introduced species have spread rapidly, becoming established in numerous intertidal Spartina The principal coordinate analysis and The STRUCTURE analysis indicated that no gene mixing among Japanese local populations (Aichi, northern and southern Kumamoto) was observed, indicating that Spartina invasion occurred independently into these regions. Atlantic cordgrass in language. Ecol. In this study, we assumed that countries or regions having high trade with Japan would be likely to become donor spots for spreading the invasive S. alterniflora irrespective of intentional/unintentional pathways as mentioned before. Tamaoki, M., Takizaki, Y. These facts suggest that S. alterniflora expanding in East Asian countries originates from populations (found) in the southeast U.S., especially around the Florida Peninsula. Axis 1 and Axis 2 account for 41.2% and 23.3% of the variance, respectively. Divers. The polymorphic locus rate (P) was calculated for each local population. Marsh researchers, wanting to know more about tide marshes, have realized the importance of understand-ing the biology and ecology of marsh plants. Among the three regions, trading between the ports of northern Kumamoto and the U.S. was obviously lower than trading with China. Therefore, further research on the genetic characteristics of the invasive S. alterniflora should be carried out worldwide for estimating its global spread and future invasion risks. In this study, we predicted the low frequency of S. alterniflora invasion. 9 (4), 443–455. 719 1807. Ecol. Impacts of an alien species (Spartina alterniflora) on the macrobenthos community of Jiangsu coastal inter-tidal ecosystem. Evol. Evol. (Rosaceae) in its native range and in areas of introduction, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. PCR products were purified using NucleoSpin Extract II (Macherey–Nagel, Düren, Germany) and then were used as a template for the cycle sequencing reaction. doi: 10.2307/3298527. We would like to thank Dr. Tadao Kitagawa, Dr. Takuo Sawahata, Dr. Kaori Kochi, Takahiro Kusaka (Kindai University), Kano Koide (Japan Wildlife Research Center), and Reiko Ito (Kyushu Kaihatsu Engineering Co., Ltd.) for their helpful suggestions and supports regarding this manuscript. (1985). Provan, J., Murphy, S., Maggs, C. A. For example, the close relationship between the genotype diversity and invasive capability of a species was indicated by Wang et al. Mol. Symbols are as follows: rhomboid, populations in Umeda River (Aichi); square, in Oono River (southern Kumamoto); triangle, in Shirakawa River (northern Kumamoto); cross, in Tsuboi River (northern Kumamoto). Taxon Concept 2.3.4 (Pritchard et al., 2000) was used for this analysis. doi: 10.2166/aqua.2001.0011, McCauley, D. E., Smith, R. A., Lisenby, J. D., Hsieh, C. (2003). Distrib. Ecol. Thus, to validate this hypothesis, trade histories were compared between countries/regions where S. alterniflora has grown (the United States, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong) (Blum et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2016) and the ports nearest to each studied river in Japan (i.e., Kumamoto Port, Yatsushiro Port, and Mikawa Port) using historical trade data from the 2003 to 2013 in the Global Trade Atlas (https://www.gtis.com/gta/). Presence/absence of the multilocus genotype matches in among individual polymorphic gene loci was analyzed using Software GENALEX ver. Therefore, these facts indicate that the founder effect might have occurred in S. alterniflora populations in Japan. The inbreeding coefficient (FIS) of each population in Japan indicated that estimated FIS values of samples from the Tsuboi (FIS = 0.29) and Oono (FIS = 0.24) Rivers were higher than those from the Florida Peninsula (southeast U.S.) (FIS = −0.02 ± 0.17) and China (FIS = −0.02 ± 0.16), suggesting the significantly excessive homozygosity (P<0.05). Figure 2 Frequency and distribution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotypes in the region of origin (the eastern Unites States) and in the regions where Spartina alterniflora had been introduced intentionally and/or unintentionally (the Pacific coast of the U.S. and the East Asian countries). in Chinese with English Abstract. Within the region of its origin, haplotype C4 was widely observed in the Atlantic coast of the U.S. Also, this haplotype was the most dominant in the East Asian countries where S. alterniflora has been introduced intentionally (China, see An et al., 2007) or unintentionally (Taiwan and Hong Kong e.g., Scholz et al., 2009; Guo et al., 2015). *Correspondence: Daisuke Hayasaka, [email protected]; [email protected], †Present addresses: Yu Maebara, Nagoya Branch Office, Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Aichi, JapanYuka Iguchi, Research Division 2, Japan Wildlife Research Center (JWRC), Tokyo, JapanAtsushi Nishino, Daiichi Fukken Co. Ltd., Fukuoka, Japan, ‡These authors have contributed equally to this work, Front. Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Tracking the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. Evol. doi: 10.1614/IPSM-D-15-00020.1, Lee, C. E. (2002). Dlugosch, K. M., Parker, I. M. (2008). We analyzed that exogenous ammonium nitrogen (EAN) of different concentration influenced on the growth and physiology of Spartina alterniflora Loisel (S. alterniflora) through simulated conditions. Bot. Among the 11 microsatellite markers, no genetic polymorphisms were detected from the locus SPR3. (2019). Trin. Ecological Genetics: Design, Analysis, and Application (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing). The sample collection was carried out following the method in Blum et al. doi: 10.3354/meps292111, Okoshi, K. (2007). Spartina anglica C.E. J. Appl. Smooth cordgrass is the dominant emergent grass species found growing along tidal salt marshes of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Notes 4 (1), 39–42. DOC Research & Development Series 292-42. The East Asian countries are one of the largest supply sources on young shellfish and seedlings for cultivation in tidal flats of Japan (Okoshi, 2007), and thus the contamination of multiple species of organisms is often observed with the imports. The genotypes of S. alterniflora populations in Japan were identified using 11 different microsatellite markers (Supplementary Table 2). (2005) indicated that multiple introductions of invasive populations appear to be the rule rather than the exception, while other researchers have reported that the frequency of introductions may greatly contribute to the decrease of genetic diversity in these populations if a highly competitive species has invaded a region rich in genetic diversity, and to the relief from inbreeding depression over the short run (years to decades) (e.g., Frankham et al., 2002; Saltonstall, 2002; Dlugosch and Parker, 2008). We thank Dr. Francisco Sánchez-Bayo (The University of Sydney), Dr. Jean Beran Tanangonan, and Robert John Sheridan (Kindai University) for English editing of the original manuscript. Region ) K. ; Olenin, S., Maggs, C., Grosholz, E., reveal, spartina alterniflora loisel! 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