Funerals after such battles were public rituals and Pericles used the occasion to make … In spite of his often jingoistic faith in Athens, Pericles is indeed right in assuming that “the admiration of … It was the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BCE). ... became Lincolns job to build the community of the United Stated back up and he began the process of doing so during a funeral oration for soldiers lost civil war through his persuasive speech used through his constitutive rhetoric. Pericles was a famous Greek general. Many scholars see echoes of Pericles's text in President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. However, he himself feels that the heroic deeds of the dead were adequately honored by the funeral the crowd has just witnessed and that the Athenian state has paid for. Summary Funeral Pericles' Speech. All of them have contributed to the affairs of the civilization either in one way or the other. Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis. 438 Chyselephantine Athena set up in Parthenon. And in his praises, a deep-rooted reverence for balance emerges Pericles Funeral Oration in Praise of Democracy. It continued to develop with the institution of a democratic system of government through the efforts of the Athenian statesman Cleisthenes (c. 570–c. Pericles’ funeral oration remains a poignant reminder that all things come at a cost. Scholars found a written record of this speech. He is preparing Athenians for what lies ahead. Women in Athens were expected to be dutiful wives and mothers. He argues that the Athenian army and navy can overcome their enemies. Pericles passes off his young daughter Marina to be raised by others. Pericles closes his funeral oration to the dead heroes of Athens by saying, “What I would prefer is that you should fix your eyes every day on the greatness of Athens as she really is and should fall in love with her. 18 July 2019. Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis: Athenian… This piece is a funeral oratory, a speech written to honor fallen Athenian heroes at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Funerals after great battles were held as a public event where any citizen of Athens, stranger or relative to the fallen heroes, was invited to take place. This speech became known as Pericles' Funeral Oration, and it occurred in 431 B.C., just after the start of war. Course Hero, Inc. As a reminder, you may only use Course Hero content for your own personal use and may not copy, distribute, or otherwise exploit it for any other purpose. Pericles says that Athenians benefit from having to take care of both their public duties as citizens and their private affairs in business. Homer (c. 9th or 8th century BCE) was a celebrated Greek poet. After the dead had been buried in a public grave, one of the leading citizens, chosen by the city, would offer a suitable speech, and on this occasion Pericles was chosen. Pericles’ Funeral Oration Why do we fight wars if they just cause death and sorrow. Course Hero. Rhetorical Analysis Of Pericles's Funeral Oration. the Prince of Tyre) travels to Antioch, where King Antiochus is hosting a little contest. He claims that "in magnifying the city I have magnified them." The official funeral oration for the Athenian soldiers who died at one of the opening battles of the Peloponnesian War by the leader of democratic Athens, Pericles. He gave a speech in Athens, a public speech, honoring the many warriors who were killed in battle after the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Pericles' Funeral Oration Rhetorical Analysis Greece has seen many great orators, leaders and reformers. (This argument is a response to Spartan criticisms of Athens.) Analysis of the Ending of "Death of a Salesman", Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis: Athenian Democracy," in, Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis: Athenian…. Furthermore, Pericles says, Athens does not just exercise democratic principles in government, but also in everyday life. Pericles describes Athenian democracy as a system of government where men advance on merit rather than on class or wealth. He notes that he will praise the dead for whom the crowd has gathered, but first he wishes to discuss the principles and institutions that define Athens. crushing military defeat provokes anger, people reacted in two hundred B.C.E., and people react today, in 2017. Indeed, a worthy summation of Pericles’s oration is that it is a count of the “points in which [Athens] is worthy of admiration”. It is like the "garland" with which Athens honors success among both the living and the dead. The historian Thucydides wrote about the speech of Pericles in his “History of the Peloponnesian War.” Thucydides wrote that the speech was reproduced from his memory and was a loose account only. He suggests that he values deeds over words. He reflects on how giving too much praise might cause listeners to feel envious or upset, knowing that they could not live up to the example of the soldiers. After the funeral, Pericles stood in front of the grave to give his speech. Pericles emphasizes the greatness of a democracy in his funeral oration. This comment suggests the importance of fulfilling civic duties and following the law. Its emphasis on public discussion was criticized by many of its neighbors. Here you can order a professional work. Study guide and teaching aid for the Funeral Oration of Pericles featuring document text, summary, and expert commentary. The speech concluded a ritualized ceremony to honor the city’s soldiers who had fallen in the first year of the Peloponnesian War. He asks her about her birth, and she says her name is Marina. Athens used its strong navy to establish an empire, gaining influence and power over many smaller Greek city-states. Background of Pericles Funeral Oration Pericles’ Funeral Oration stands as the grand exemplar of epideictic oratory, specifically the form of epideictic known to the Greeks as epitaphios logos, and to us as a eulogy. 508 BCE). Pericles's father, … Sparta would destroy the Athenian navy and blockade the city, starving the Athenians, who eventually surrendered.). Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis. 1333 Words 6 Pages. At such a time of high emotions and patriotism – Pericles has not one theme but several. Pericles is here referring to the discussions held at the monthly meeting of the ruling assembly, or ekklesia. interpretation of Pericles’ Funeral Oration is a significant text of the Classical World, delivered by Pericles during 5th Century Greece and the Age of Pericles. It is said that case should be read two times. (2019, July 18). Again, this is in sharp contrast to Sparta, where hardship and discipline were paramount. Further discussing the difficulty faced by a speaker whose task is to honor the dead, Pericles states that no matter what he says in his speech, someone will be unhappy. First, he was the leading citizen of Athens at that time and his vision guided the Athenians’ early actions in the war. In noting that the fallen soldiers had not been enervated, or weakened, by wealth, and that they were ready and able to abandon life's pleasures, Pericles pushes back against the Spartan notion that comfort or luxury weakens individuals and societies. It is this legacy that Pericles is seeking to create. He paints Athens's war dead as tough, disciplined, and heroic, suggesting that they are no less prepared than Sparta's soldiers. He points out that Spartans bring their allies to a fight, while Athens does not. A panegyrist is one who writes a panegyric, a formal public speech that elaborately praises someone or something. All citizens could speak and try to shape the policies and practices of the city-state. More detail: 3 minute read. Democracy is thus "rule by the people." Download a PDF to print or study offline. The Spartans, on the other hand, are never free of hardship because of their strict society. In 431 BCE, at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War, held their traditional public funeral for all those who had been killed. Their deaths bring them glory because of their actions and because they gave themselves for the good of their society. Homer proved that Greeks valued loyalty through his epic. Pericles died of disease in 429 BCE, just two years after his great speech. Retrieved January 16, 2021, from https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Funeral-Oration/. Pericles used his speech to try to argue for Athens's values and form of government and to persuade Athenians to stay strong and continue fighting. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides. Pericles needed to confront this challenge, and much of the Funeral Oration is therefore a direct comparison with Sparta. He says that only Athens is actually better than its reputation. In Course Hero. The Funeral Oration was recognised as a rhetorical masterpiece, and so from the sixteenth century onwards it was often included in collections of ancient speeches that were used to teach students the principles of rhetoric. He warns against cowardice and suggests that a man who dies in the grip of patriotic feeling does not even feel death. Haven’t found the relevant content? They will be judged by the example their dead brothers and fathers provided. Pericles’ Funeral Oration was a reminder to them. Pericles’ profound rhetorical skills were displayed within his Funeral Oration honoring Athenian soldiers who demonstrated extraordinary valor. These preliminary statements may reflect Pericles's experiences as a political leader. Course Hero. July 18, 2019. This study guide for Pericles's Funeral Oration offers summary and analysis on themes, symbols, and other literary devices found in the text. This kind of speech was generally given at a mass funeral, to honor many who had died fighting in the war. Free proofreading and copy-editing included. Pericles believed that democracy, because it is rule by citizens, required citizens to be informed and to have a direct interest in affairs of state. https://www.thoughtco.com/pericles-funeral-oration-thucydides-version-111998 He had rivals and enemies, and his policies and actions were sometimes criticized, although in general he enjoyed the widespread support of Athenians. Pericles describes the Athenian form of government as an example to its neighbors, noting that Athens does not copy what others do. Professional writers in all subject areas are available and will meet your assignment deadline. Pericles Funeral Oration In the fifth century BCE the city of Athens was lead by a man named Pericles. Pericles glorifies the “equal justice to all” under the law that all men of Athens share and glorifies their superiority over their peer poleis. Funeral Oration Study Guide. In doing so, he implicitly criticizes Sparta, Athens's great enemy in the war. In fact, Pericles sees Athens as having the ultimate possible government; the one best conducive to freedom, liberty, courage, honor, and justice – the values most honored by the Athenians. Pericles views Athens as so superior that he feels that people who are defeated by Athens in combat will actually not complain, because Athenians are so obviously worthy of mastering others. Pericles’ funeral oration to the Athenians at the end of the first year of war. Funeral Oration of Pericles: Document Analysis OVERVIEW The Funeral Oration delivered by Pericles of Athens is considered one of the most famous speeches of antiquity. (Find a … Filed Under: Essays. Pericles' Funeral Oration Rhetorical Analysis Greece has seen many great orators, leaders and reformers. Course Hero. Our boy Pericles (a.k.a. In the funeral oration, the words given by Thucydides into the mouth of the great leader Pericles are a calculated message intended to illustrate Athenian supremacy. Pericles celebrates the free, comfortable, enjoyable lives led by Athenian citizens. Pericles extolls several of the virtues of Athens, most of them centered on the then-unique form of democracy. Homer’s Epic The Odyssey 654 Words | 3 Pages. Pericles concludes his speech by encouraging his listeners to choose virtuous behavior in the days ahead. Pericles' Funeral Oration from the Peloponnesian War (Book 2.34-46) This famous speech was given by the Athenian leader Pericles after the first battles of the Peloponnesian war. 2, ch. He praises the double advantage of the Athenian system, which is that it prevents hardships in peacetime but produces a citizenry equally as capable of facing hardship in war as the Spartans. Athenians not only enjoy equality before the law; they are also equal when it comes to opportunity. Pericles begins by acknowledging that most speakers praise the decision, made by a past generation, to add an oration, or speech, to Athens's funeral customs. He compares Athens to the heroes of legend by saying that they do not need Homer or "any other panegyrist" to praise them. Second, general scholarly consensus is that Loyalty is the base of many of the abilities humans possess: love, friendship, patriotism, honesty, and integrity. Pericles’s famous funeral oration is, without a doubt, one of the greatest speeches passed down in history, yet there is dispute as to the true meaning of democracy put forth. At the time, Athenian democracy was an unusual system of government. The epainesis in Pericles’ oration continues with a remark on arete, that is, the excellence of the dead in battle: But the valor of these men and their peers gave the city her beauty…The death of these, in my judgment, revealed the courage of some at their first encounter, or conformed the others’ established record (Pericles, 21). Funerals after such battles were public rituals and Pericles used the occasion to make a classic statement of the value of democracy. Eventually, Sparta destroyed Athens's navy, ultimately crushing it. Rhetorical Analysis Of Pericles And Lincoln's Funeral Oration. In a democracy, “class considerations [are not] allowed to interfere with merit” – any man capable enough to rule is allowed to do so. (Ancient History Sourcebook: Thucydides (c. 460/455-c. 399 BCE): Pericles’ Memorial Oration through the Peloponnesian Warfare (Book 2 . https://schoolworkhelper.net/pericles-funeral-oration-analysis-athenian-democracy/, Tillie Olsen’s I Stand Here Ironing: Summary & Analysis, Shakespeare’s Macbeth: History & Analysis, The Roswell UFO Crash: Summary & Analysis, The German Great Inflation: Summary & Analysis, The 1968 Tet Offensive: Summary & Analysis, The Scarlet Letter: Hester Character Analysis, “On the Sidewalk, Bleeding”: Analysis & Theme, Power, Control and Loss of Individuality in George Orwell’s 1984, Augustus’ Role in Shaping the Roman Empire. Addressing those who lost loved ones in the battle, Pericles says that he is offering them comfort rather than pity. Pericles' Funeral Oration by Philipp Foltz (1852) When the bodies had been buried, it was customary for some wise and prudent notable and chief person of the city, preeminent in honor and dignity, before all the people to make a prayer in praise of the dead, and after doing this, each one returned to his House. In his “Funeral Oration”, Pericles speaks about the Athenian life and their accomplishments as a method of inspiring those who are living and to be reminded of the actual dead got fought pertaining to. Read More. It was Athenian tradition to bury the bones of those who fell in battle together, along with an empty casket to represent those whose bodies were not found. Rhetorical Analysis of Funeral Oration by Pericles By: Matthew Porter 4/16/12 There are many famous speakers in the world and even more famous speeches, the Funeral Oration by Pericles did more for the people of Athens with this speech than any other man could have. However, Pericles argues, this does not in any way make Athens weak. A summary of Part X (Section13) in William Shakespeare's Pericles. Its content could be more problematic. The Analysis of Pericles’ Funeral Oration Essay Sample. This war was fought between the two most powerful city-states of ancient Greece: Athens and Sparta. Men were encouraged to develop the masculine virtues of bravery and dutiful citizenship. This English word comes from the Greek demos, meaning "people," and kratia, meaning "strength" or "power." Homer proved that Greeks valued loyalty through his epic. Over time, Athenians asserted their leading role in the league, and it transformed into an Athenian empire. Being born poor or of low status does not prevent a talented man from getting ahead. This study guide for Pericles's Funeral Oration offers summary and analysis on themes, symbols, and other literary devices found in the text. STEP 2: Reading The Pericles Funeral Oration Analysis Harvard Case Study: To have a complete understanding of the case, one should focus on case reading. Recognizing the potential impact of his words, Pericles expresses a wish that the reputations of the dead would not rest on the oratorical skills—the talent of crafting and giving speeches—of a single individual. Thus, Pericles celebrates the acts and attitude of those who died in battle. Athenians rejected Sparta's values and practices, although it was clear that Sparta's culture did work to product a strong military. And while we might enjoy several luxuries within our own lifetime, there are often those who suffer selflessly on our behalf; falling again and again under the blows of outrageous fortunes so that we might live contently, peacefully. Pericles continues to discuss what makes Athens a great city-state. In a statement oozing with patriotism, Pericles proclaims: “We cultivate refinement without extravagance and knowledge without effeminacy; wealth we employ more for use than for show, and place the real disgrace of poverty not in owning to the fact but in declining the struggle against it.” It is these balanced priorities and powerful show of moderation that makes Athens great. 2 pages, 523 words. Pericles also uses his praise of the dead to build an argument about what Athenians are fighting for. In honoring the dead soldiers, Pericles states that their heroism overshadows any faults they may have had as individuals. Some scholars argue that Thucydides likely edited Pericles's speech to some extent, noting that Thucydides described the speeches he recorded in his work as texts that communicated the main ideas that speakers sought to convey. In 431 BCE, the statesmen Pericles delivered one of his most famous speeches of all time. Pericles gave his oration, or ceremonial speech, about 431 BCE. Pericles wraps up his praise of Athens by calling the city "the school of Hellas." First, he was the leading citizen of Athens at that time and his vision guided the Athenians’ early actions in the war. In Britain, special editions of the Funeral Oration were printed during World War I. Ideal view of Athens will motivate Athenians to perform acts of courage in future battles and struggles offering... Pericles wraps up his praise of democracy so should have more children, to honor dead! Important to note that citizens had to be raised by others he notes that the Athenians early... 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