And if corruption is admitted in those of lesser importance, why not in others of greater? Jesus claimed that He had given His apostles the same infallible, inerrant words which His Father had given Him, and that “they have received them” (John 17:8). Answer: The Critical Text is a Greek text of the New Testament that draws from a group of ancient Greek manuscripts and their variants in an attempt to preserve the most accurate wording possible. (Z.C. The question is whether it is better for Bible translations to rely on the Textus Receptus, which is supported by the majority of manuscripts, or to favor the scientific text (Nestle-Aland). His apostles and disciples did the same. Other studies, however, have shown that this is simply not the case. A common theory adopted by the Alexandrian Text theory is that somehow the original ending of Mark has been lost, and verses 9-20 were added by a later redactor. Nor can it be said that these corruptions are only in smaller things which do not affect the foundation of faith. "[12]Each of these passages forcefully argues for the divine, everlasting preservation of the Word of God. These are the very words which He taught “will by no means pass away” (Matthew 24:35). For many advocates of the majority text view, a peculiar form of the doctrine of the preservation of Scripture undergirds the entire approach. "They came and saw where He was staying, and they stayed with Him that day. John Owen, who was a contemporary of the Westminster divines, said it this way: The sum of what I am pleading for, as to the particular head to be vindicated, is, that as the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament were immediately and entirely given out by God Himself, His mind being in them represented unto us without the least interveniency of such mediums and ways as were capable of giving change or alteration to the least iota or syllable; so, by His good and merciful providential dispensation, in His love to His Word and church, His whole Word, as first given out by Him, is preserved unto us entire in the original languages; where, shining in its own beauty and lustre (as also in all translations, so far as they faithfully represent the originals), it manifests and evidences unto the consciences of men, without other foreign help or assistance, its divine original and authority.[10]. Re: Modern English Bibles Based on the Majority Text? [25]The Byzantine Text is so called because the majority of its manuscripts come from eastern Greek speaking church in the Byzantine Empire. Interlinear Textus Receptus Bibles shown verse by verse. ", And Nathanael said to him, "Can anything good come out of Nazareth? This view of post-canonical inspiration of translators is not the position espoused by biblical Christianity. For since nothing false can be an object of [saving] faith, how could the Scriptures be held as authentic and reckoned divine if liable to contradictions and corruptions? This is referred to as the Majority Text or Byzantine Text theory. This is the [One] about whom I said, 'After me comes a Man who ranks before me, because He was before me. The manuscripts that are fewer in number were in all probability rejected by copyists; their scarcity indicates their corrupt nature. By Arthur L. Farstad, et. A Biblical view of Scripture makes no assertion that no errors have crept into the copies. Hodges, "A Defense of the Majority Text", p. 4) Pickering’s analysis of the ‘Byzantine’ text (a.k.a Majority text of the King James Bible) inevitably concludes with the verdict that the huge number of manuscripts comprising the ‘majority’ Greek text demands its ancestry from the true text … After all, it is alleged, all of the Byzantine Text came from one related family. The EMTV (English Majority Text Version) New Testament by Paul Esposito Text History Regarding the preservation of the Greek New Testament, there are two main schools of thought: (1) the Critical Texts, and (2) the Majority Texts. 27. Human language per se is a gift of God and is an entirely adequate and suitable vehicle for expressing divine truth accurately and literally. Albeit the men of that day had copies of the law (which is obvious from their carrying out the work required by the law in 2 Chronicles 34:1-13), there were apparently certain teachings which were not found in the copies which were in the originals. And they are to be corrected, where necessary, by the originals. I did not know Him, but He who sent me to baptize with water said to me, 'Upon whom you see the Spirit descending and abiding on Him, this is He who baptizes with the Holy Spirit. Welcome to the third edition of The English Majority Text Version (EMTV) of the Holy Bible. [41], Therefore, textual criticism over the last century has followed the principles used by Rome (and Enlightenment Rationalism), not those of the Reformers and Puritans. [31] Further, it is not the case that the numerous manuscripts of the Byzantine Text have all come from one common parent. The Scriptures of Jesus’ day were surely copies of the original manuscripts. ", He said: "I am 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness: "Make straight the way of the LORD,"' just as Isaiah the prophet said.". [18]Technically, there is a slight distinction between the Alexandrian Text and the Critical Text, but for the purpose of this article, they are considered to be basically the same. 30. And John testified, saying, "I have beheld the Spirit coming down from heaven like a dove, and He remained upon Him. Hence, the great number of them carries little weight. Mistakes in the original manuscripts would attribute error to God, but defects in the copies attribute error only to the copyists. [17]Translation theory is extremely important on this question as well. In Isaiah 40:8 we read: “The grass withers, the flower fades, but the Word of our God stands forever.” Then too, Jesus Himself claimed that “till Heaven and Earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled” (Matthew 5:18). The Bible itself affirms the perpetuity of God’s Word. [21], The Westcott-Hort theory further maintains that some 85-90 percent of Greek manuscripts represented by the Received Text, which unlike the Alexandrian Text, are in substantial agreement, underwent a radical editing process in the fourth century. It is not enough that the translations be accurate; the Greek text underlying the translations must be the correct one. It even has an Hegelian flare to it, supposing that somehow there must be a “progressive” element to textual criticism. The other text types include the Western, the Caesarean, and the most important, the Alexandrian. places of the original Koine Greek. 55. In Jeremiah 36, after wicked king Jehoiakim destroyed the prophet’s original document, Jeremiah was told to make another copy. Wilbur N. Pickering, The Identity of the New Testament (Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1977), 31-40. [20] If it were true that the earlier codices are to be considered as the most trustworthy, then it would seem that they ought to differ the least among themselves. as a result of his work, and the work of others, John 7:53-8:11, and the book of Revelation reflect these variant ", Jesus answered and said to him, "Because I said to you, 'I saw you under the fig tree,' do you believe? It is arrived at by comparing all known manuscripts with one another and deriving from them the readings that are more numerous than any others. He came to His own, and His own did not receive Him. The only begotten Son, He who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared [Him]. The English Majority Text Version draws from the work of both Dr.’s Hodges and Farstad, and their text, “The Greek [41]Einwechter, English Bible Translations: By What Standard? In a… The word doesn't mean unless. The two disciples heard him speaking, and they followed Jesus. And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem so that they might ask him, "Who are you? [15]Cited in McDowell, Evidence That Demands a Verdict, 44. [35]Engelsma, Modern Bible Versions, 32-33. Also, the third edition finds itself closer to the Robinson/Pierpoint printed )[13] Revelation 22:18-19 are especially strong: For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book; and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book. Too, the weight of textual evidence now reveals that the Byzantine Text readings go back at least to the time of Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus. PhD., and the EMTV has incorporated his hard work in the field of producing evidence of just what does constitute a majority reading, and, as a result of his work, and the work of others, John … “History is completely silent,” wrote Harry Sturz, “with regard to any revision of the Byzantine [Received] Text.”[22] As a matter of fact, there is evidence to show that the Alexandrian manuscripts were the ones tampered with, and these deliberate changes are the reason that these documents are so dissimilar. [10]John Owen, The Works of John Owen (The Banner of Truth Trust, 1979), XVI:349-350. Therefore, the appropriate corrections were made. This interlinear has the NLT English translation as the primary text. The Majority Text. It is my prayer that this work will bring honor to our Lord [23]Pickering, The Identity of the New Testament Text, 58-62, 107-110. The Byzantine text type is by far the majority text type and is to be found in the vast majority of later NT manuscripts. I consider the New King James Version much easier to read, and it is my recommendation for most people. He first found his own brother Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah"(which is translated, the Christ). [37] Why? “Every word of God is pure; He is a shield to "They said to Him, "Rabbi"(which is translated, Teacher), "where are You staying?". English Bible translations also have a rich and varied history of more than a millennium. The Byzantine Majority New Testament is extremely literal. It is extremely common for King James Only advocates to conflate the “Majority Text” (M-Text) with the “Textus Receptus” (TR), or the tradition of printed Greek texts behind the King James Version. Actually, none presently published are based on the Byzantine Majority Text, but two major versions are based on the Received Text, which reflects 98% of the Majority Text already. As Pickering wrote, it is unproved at every point.[42]. readings. ". [9]Thomas M. Strouse, “Every Word: Matthew 4:4,” Thou Shalt Keep Them (Pillar and Ground Publishing, 2003), edited by Kent Brandenburg, 35. Deuteronomy 4:12; 12:32; and Proverbs 30:6, as well as Revelation 22:18-19, tell us that one must not add to or delete from the original Word of God. Indeed, there is strong evidence to suggest that the Byzantine Text documents come from numerous parts of Christendom, and are not related genealogically.[32]. Majority Text Greek New Testament Interlinear. Under the New Testament era, the same responsibility has been given to the church, which is the “pillar and ground of the truth” (1 Timothy 3:15). [35] This erroneous approach to textual criticism is more rationalistic than Biblical. more often than not they do not even agree with each other. We would never be able to recover the actual New Testament text. Here the two major doctrines are the verbal and plenary inspiration of the autographa, and the providential preservation of the inspired words. This is a phrase based interlinear. Israel had been guilty of not doing all that God had required (verses 19-21). ", Nathanael answered and said to Him, "Rabbi, You are the Son of God! [14]Gordon H. Clark, Colossians (Jefferson, Maryland: The Trinity Foundation, 1989), 131-132. [28] In the words of William Einwechter, it is virtually certain that “this text [TR] was in continuous use in the Greek church from at least the 4th century until the time of the Reformation when Erasmus made this text the basis for the first printed edition of the Greek NT.”[29] The fact that we do not possess any early copies of the Byzantine Text is easily explained: 1) the climate in Egypt, where the early Alexandrian Text manuscripts were found, is more arid, thus any text would last longer there; 2) the Egyptian manuscripts were probably not used, due to their corrupt nature, and therefore lasted longer, whereas the majority of manuscripts was frequently used and these manuscripts “wore out.”[30], Second, if numbers of similar manuscripts have a single ancestor, as is alleged to be the case with the Byzantine Text, it does not necessarily mean that the greater number carries little weight. The idea of "conflating" about twenty English translations, starting with the KJV and including many others, is an interesting concept. I watched a video that referenced a site (The Majority English Bible.net) but when I tried to Google it, nothing popped, at least on the first page. This is because Hodges is no longer on the faculty (he taught from 1959 to 1986). (It should not be forgotten that tampering with the Word of God was one ploy of Satan to bring about the fall [Genesis 3:1-7]. ". Many will directly claim that the TR is the M-Text, or will say that the TR represents “the vast majority of Greek manuscripts.” Neither of these are true statements. [21]Robert L. Dabney, Discussions of Robert L. Dabney (The Banner of Truth Trust, 1982), I:364. For the law was given through Moses, but grace and truth came to be through Jesus Christ. 40. [30]Pickering, The Identity of the New Testament Text, 124ff; David J. Engelsma, Modern Bible Versions (Protestant Reformed Church, 1988), 27. Contrary to the teachings of Westcott-Hort, wrote Harry Sturz, “distinctively Byzantine readings of every kind have been shown to be early.” They are attested to by early papyri and several of the church fathers. John testified concerning Him and has cried out, saying, "This was He of whom I said, 'He who comes after me, has come to be before me, because He was before me.' There are also a number of translations of the early church, along with some 2,200 church lectionaries (that is Bible study material or readings for the church’s weekly worship services), which are based on portions of the New Testament. And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not apprehend it. My favorite interlinear. But, because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God., who have the right unto, and interest in the Scriptures, and are commanded, in the fear of God, to read and search them, therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar language of every nation unto which they come, that, the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may worship Him in an acceptable manner; and through patience and comfort of the Scriptures, may have hope. Most modern Bibles are based upon the latter. It is highly subjective, rather than Biblically objective. Here I give in English all translatable differences between the Hodges-Farstad "Majority Text" and the editon of the Received text compiled by F.H.A. According to the Westminster divines, only the original biblical manuscripts (the autographa) were “immediately inspired by God.” These inspired words were “kept pure in all ages.” The Greek and Hebrew copies which we possess today are to be considered “authentical,” and they are the Word of God. The entirety of Your Word is truth, and every one of Your righteous judgments endures forever” (verses 89, 152, 160). But without a site where samples can be seen, little can be said. Romanism favored a few manuscripts with numerous differences, over the majority of manuscript which were in basic agreement, whereas the Reformers and the Puritans, for the most part, took the opposite stand. A. Hort, Introduction to the New Testament in the Original Greek (Hendrickson, 1988). See also Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (United Bible Societies, 1971, 1975), xiii-xxxi. Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. Compares the 1550 Stephanus Textus Receptus with the King James Bible. Both Greek and English preserve their original word order but group phrases until all of the word groups align. majority! [45] That is, God has not only “immediately inspired” the original writings, but He has also “kept pure in all ages” the apographa so that they “are authentical.”, According to the Word of God, as taught in the Westminster Confession of Faith (14:2), by saving faith “a Christian believes to be true whatsoever is revealed in the Word, for the authority of God Himself speaks therein.” In His Word God tells us that He will providentially preserve His Word unto all generations. ", He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, "I am not the Messiah. [22]Sturz, The Byzantine Text-Type and New Testament Textual Criticism, 122. On the next day He wanted to go to Galilee, and He found Philip and said to him, "Follow Me.". Again, the next day, John stood with two of his disciples. According to the Byzantine Text theory, on the other hand, greater age is not nearly so important as number. For example in 196… It will not do to say that divine providence wished to keep it free from serious corruptions, but not from minor. And on their missionary journeys, Paul and his companions preached the Word of God in language that their auditors were able to understand (Acts 13-28). And out of His fullness we have all received, and grace upon grace. The Majority Text are the majority of the extant Greek manuscripts used in the making of Textus Receptus, (Text Received), that the King James Bible is translated from. The versions following the Alexandrian Text bracket verses 9-20 as not part of the original, because they are lacking in Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus. world english bible based on the american standard version the greek majority text and the hebrew biblia hebraica stuttgartensia annotated the origin of christ Nov 15, 2020 Posted By Sidney Sheldon Library TEXT ID f1599cac0 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library World English Bible Based On The American Standard Version The Greek In this manner, persons of all nations would come to know the way of salvation (John 20:31; Romans 1:16-17; 10:7), and be able to protect themselves against the evil one and his minions (Ephesians 6:10-18). [20]B. F. Wescott and F. J. True and full canonicity calls for both. those who put their trust in Him. The Received Text belongs to the manuscripts of the Majority Text, but is not perfectly identical with it. However, no faculty member in the New Testament Studies department at the present time embraces the majority text theory of textual criticism. The Roman Catholic Church, on the other hand, used a handful of copies in which numerous variants existed in an attempt to refute the principle of sola Scriptura. John answered them, saying, "I baptize with water, but there stands One among you whom you do not know. As this article has shown, however, this is not true. [27]E. F. Hills, The King James Version Defended! Scrivener (representing the readings followed in the King James version). We appreciate your response. The Critical Text or Minority Text consists of 3 manuscripts and a few small sections of other manuscripts. There are very few Bibles available today that reflect the Majority Text. That was the true Light which lightens every man coming into the world. In 2 Kings 22 and 2 Chronicles 34 we read of the finding of the “original” book of the law of Moses by the priest Hilkiah (the literal reading of 2 Chronicles 34:14 is “by the hand of Moses”). and to better understand His word, which He has given to mankind. You are the King of Israel! In Deuteronomy 17:18, we read that a copy of the law was to be made (the original was in the ark of the covenant; Hebrews 9:4), and given to the king so that he would know how to conduct his affairs according to Biblical law. Hort. Are you Elijah? John Warwick Montgomery wrote: “To be skeptical of the resultant text of the New Testament books is to allow all of classical antiquity to slip into obscurity, for no documents of the ancient period are as well attested bibliographically as the New Testament.”[7], As B. B. Warfield pointed out, we are not to understand the Westminster divines as teaching that every copy is without error, but that the genuine text has been “kept pure” in the multitude of Hebrew and Greek copies. This same principle is taught in Nehemiah 8, where we read of the Word of God being read in the original language by Ezra but being translated into the language of the auditors by the Levites. and pastors in various countries. For if once the authenticity of the Scriptures is taken away (which would result even from the incurable corruption of one passage), how could our faith rest on what remains? But most of the other Markan manuscripts contain the verses. Far from being an impediment to communication between God and man, language, speech, the human word, is the exclusive vehicle of such communication. Francis Turretin was of the same opinion: Although we give to the Scriptures absolute integrity, we do not therefore think that the copyists and printers were inspired…, but only that the providence of God watched over the copying of the sacred books, so that although many errors might have crept in, it has not so happened (or they have so crept into the manuscripts) but that they can be easily corrected by a collation of others (or with the Scriptures themselves). The Majority Text. All things came to be through Him, and without Him nothing came to be which has come to be. For besides the fact that this is gratuitous, it cannot be held without injury, as if lacking in the necessary things which are required for the full credibility of Scripture itself. And in Proverbs 25:1 we read of Solomon’s original “proverbs” being copied by the “men of Hezekiah”; and the copies are considered to be the Word of God. [37]Webb, “Not One Jot or One Tittle,” Thou Shalt Keep Them, 48. 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