2018 . Forced marriages of young women and girls are rampant in the Mekong region of Cambodia, China, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Victims, not perpetrators, are often the ones who suffer physical abuse and prosecution for illegal migration. A government decree required migrant worker recruitment agencies to apply for a license and pay a deposit fee applied toward a foreign worker employment fund; unregistered agencies were liable to three years imprisonment and fines up to 60,000 baht ($1,840). The number of victims soared from 622 in 2018, while the previous high was 982 in 2015, the government data showed. These shocking figures are only estimates, since accurate data are difficult to obtain, largely because human trafficking is underreported, underdetected, and thus underprosecuted. Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP), Public Sector Debt Statistics Online Centralized Database, Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2016 (pdf), Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage. Ambassador to Thailand Glyn T. Davies. Alarming trends in human trafficking in East Asia and the Pacific have raised the urgency of dealing with the menace. The United Nations has reported that armed groups in the Philippines, including Moro rebels and communists, recruit children, at times through force, for combat and noncombat roles. The government continued to operate three child advocacy centers in Chiang Mai, Pattaya, and Phuket which served as child-friendly spaces in which law enforcement, NGOs, and social workers could conduct forensic interviews of child trafficking victims. Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU Final report - 2018 Lancaster University. In one case, the government sentenced a boat captain to four years imprisonment and ordered him to pay 450,000 baht ($13,800) in restitution to the victims. Authorities were more likely to send boy victims to juvenile detention facilities than to centers offering victim services. MSDHS trained and registered 67 additional interpreters in 2017, bringing the total number of available interpreters to 251. Females are also victims of domestic servitude and other forms of forced labor. The government demonstrated increasing efforts by prosecuting and convicting more traffickers, and decreasing prosecution time for trafficking cases through the use of specialized anti-trafficking law enforcement divisions. Malaysia has been a destination for victims from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Prosecutors also worked with NGOs to prepare victims to provide testimony. [89] HUMAN TRAFFICKING. These options may include connecting callers with emergency shelter, transportation, trauma counselors, local law enforcement, or a range of other services and support. In addition, the RTP established a working group with the MOL to review and evaluate labor violations such as wage disputes and child labor to identify potential victims of trafficking. Corruption continues to undermine anti-trafficking efforts. Given the low literacy rate and diversity of languages among at-risk persons, however, this information remained inaccessible to many vulnerable non-Thai speakers. They also arise from nonmilitary dangers such as climate change, natural disasters, infectious diseases, and transnational crimes. The U.S. National Human Trafficking Hotline provides survivors of human trafficking with vital support and options to get help and stay safe. Victims are often trafficked into Thailand through established migration routes from neighbouring states with significantly lower levels of socio-economic development. Many Southeast Asian victims migrate in search of paid jobs but wind up forced to labor in fishing, agriculture, construction, and domestic work, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM). Human trafficking not only involves sex and labor, but people are also trafficked for organ harvesting. Human trafficking is a crime in itself but it is rarely the end goal for the perpetrators. The government held a series of workshops in early 2018 to review and update screening questions, procedures, and investigative techniques to improve the success of prosecutions. Thai nationals are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking in Thailand and in countries in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The Global Slavery Index 2018 estimates that on any given day in 2016 there were 37,000 people living in conditions of modern slavery in Japan, a prevalence of 0.3 victims of modern slavery for every thousand people in the country. 21st Century Sex Slaves ★ Documentary Human Trafficking ★ HD National Geo Doc Discover. The government amended the anti-trafficking law in 2015 to provide protection to whistleblowers but did not report whether this new provision had been applied. Menu. Some government officials are directly complicit in trafficking crimes, including through accepting bribes or loans from business owners and brothels where victims are exploited. In 2017, TICAC investigated 41 allegations of online child exploitation (24 in 2016), including 18 trafficking cases (four in 2016) which resulted in eight trafficking prosecutions. The plight of thousands of migrants stranded on boats in the Andaman Sea has drawn global attention to a sinister trade in people, which has thrived in south east Asia. Some officials failed to recognize non-physical indicators of trafficking, such as non-payment of wages and document confiscation. About 60% of those rescued last … Victims of child trafficking can be used and abused over and over; A $32 billion-a-year industry, human trafficking is on the rise and is in all 50 states (U.S. Government) 2015. In addition, the government employed 60 Burmese and Cambodian language coordinators for port-in-port-out (PIPO) inspection centers, an increase from 30 in 2016, and MOL employed 74 interpreters. The cabinet subsequently approved an amended decree in March 2018, adding protections for workers such as prohibiting the confiscation of identity documents, banning sub-contracted employees, and easing the ability for workers to change employers, which remained widespread concerns during the reporting period. 2 Regardless of form, trafficking can occur within a country or across borders. 2018 Statistics . Labor trafficking victims are exploited in commercial fishing and related industries, the poultry industry, manufacturing, agriculture, and domestic work, or forced into street begging. 10,627 potential victims of human trafficking were identified in 2018 - a 52% increase from 2018. and Thailand in 2015 is gruesome evidence of such collusion; a Thai general and police officers were among 62 people convicted of human trafficking and other crimes connected with the case, accord - ing to news reports. In an effort to improve the quality of trafficking prosecutions across the country, the government operated a sub-unit within the OAG trafficking division to provide guidance and mentoring for provincial law enforcement, prosecutors, and other court officials. Members of ethnic minorities, highland persons, and stateless persons in Thailand have experienced instances of abuse indicative of trafficking. In addition, in March 2018, the government convicted four police officers who solicited bribes in exchange for not pressing charges against those involved in the exploitation of the Rohingya migrants; they were each sentenced to five years imprisonment. Snapshot of Thailand’s Key Efforts to Combat Human Trafficking and Forced Labor (As of August 2014) TIP 2013 country report The Anti-Human Trafficking and anti Child Abuse Center (ATCC) in Pattaya, Thailand, has recently launched The Child Protection and Development Life Skill Center (CPLC) run by Mr. Ja in coordination with a national foundation called Fight Against Child Exploitation (FACE). Trafficking in Persons report considered Thailand to be a Tier 2 country, meaning the report states that although the Government of Thailand does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, it is making significant efforts to do so. Calma, Justine. There are reports that some brokers and employers continue to confiscate identity documents. Thai men and women who migrate overseas also rely on registered and unregistered labor brokers to facilitate acquisition of low-skilled contract work or agricultural labor and are sometimes subjected to conditions of forced labor and debt bondage. According to the IOM’s World Migration Report 2018, 227.6 million people have been displaced since 2008. After Typhoon Haiyan, one of the strongest tropical storms ever recorded, struck the Philippines in 2013, survivors were reportedly forced to work as domestic servants, beggars, prostitutes, and laborers. NGOs and trafficking experts expressed concern that the government inconsistently identified trafficking victims, leaving them vulnerable to penalization and re-trafficking. The government continued to screen for trafficking indicators among fishermen returning to Thailand and on fishing vessels in Thai waters, as well as among workers in seafood processing facilities. Human Trafficking, 2018 1 . The scourge of human trafficking, sometimes called “modern slavery,” affects some 40 million men, women, and children trapped in a horrendous web of forced labor, sexual exploitation, and coerced marriage (ILO and Walk Free Foundation 2017). To discourage child sex tourism, the government reported it denied entry to 74 known foreign sex offenders. Dear Fellow Ohioans, About 20 million people worldwide fall victim to human trafficking each year, according to estimates. The statistics contained on this website are based on aggregated information learned through signals -- phone calls, texts, online chats, emails, and online tip reports -- received by the Trafficking Hotline. The Department of Labor Protection and Welfare (DLPW) organized training for 335 law enforcement officers on forced labor, emphasizing non-physical indicators of trafficking. Two international agreements regard human trafficking as a transnational crime: the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, also known as the Palermo Protocol. The government issued regulations to increase oversight of NGO-operated shelters and provide access to governmental financial support. These migrants tend to take illicit and dangerous routes, making them easy prey for criminal networks. In many cases, the women and children are from remote and impoverished communities. Civil society and government officials expressed concerns that due to varying levels of enforcement at PIPO centers, some boat captains chose ports where inspections and enforcement were weaker. Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves using force, fraud, or coercion to … December 21, 2018 . Some brokers charge substantial fees or collaborate with corrupt law enforcement officials, and some Thai and migrant workers incur significant debts to obtain employment and are subjected to debt bondage. This is not a UNHCR publication. Participants were appointed to mobile response teams that will advise multidisciplinary teams in complex cases. It is a lucrative business estimated to generate $3–$20 billion in profit a year. In addition, the government held training sessions with judges and prosecutors in two local regions to increase their coordination in trafficking cases. “The United States and Thailand have a robust and enduring cooperation on law enforcement, protection of victims and prevention of trafficking.” The resulting dataset is the largest of its kind globally, with information on over 108,000 individual cases of human trafficking visualized throughout the site, including through an interactive global map. 46:39. Opinions expressed in articles and other materials are those of the authors; they do not necessarily reflect IMF policy. "Thailand is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labour and sex trafficking. Then, the Japanese occupation during … Summary of Thailand’s Trafficking in Persons Progress Report 2015 (January – March 2016) Summary of Thailand’s Trafficking in Persons Report 2015. Thailand has enacted several laws against human trafficking. The specialized anti-trafficking law enforcement divisions continued to complete trafficking investigations and prosecutions more quickly than in previous reporting periods; courts completed the majority of cases heard in 2017 within six months. 1 The most common form of human trafficking (79 percent) is sexual exploitation, with victims predominantly being women and girls. Playing next. More than 5,000 Rohingya from Myanmar have been trafficked or smuggled into various parts of Bangladesh, rescued by police, and brought back to refugee camps. Impact of Livelihood Recovery Initiatives on Reducing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking and Illegal Recruitment: Lessons from Typhoon Haiyan. The late 1700s to the 1850s witnessed an influx in the number of Chinese labor workers and sex workers coming to Thailand. Top 10 Human Trafficking Cities in the World in 2018 Published on January 5, 2019 at 9:39 am by Bojana Petković in Lists , News Share Tweet Email Among these nontraditional security threats, human trafficking looms large, especially in Southeast Asia, where natural disasters and military conflicts lead to displaced people and refugees, who are particularly vulnerable to this heinous crime. The Human Trafficking Knowledge Portal is an initiative to facilitate the dissemination of information regarding the implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and specifically the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.. This requires active participation and partnership between government and civil society groups, the private sector, and international foundations. Following the adoption of the Beggar Control Act in 2016, the government increased efforts to investigate forced and child begging; it initiated 26 forced begging investigations in 2017, compared to eight in 2016. MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY is associate professor and head of the Centre for Non-Traditional Security at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Yet despite growing evidence that climate change increasingly drives forced migration, the link with human trafficking remains relatively unexplored. Some government officials profit from bribes and direct involvement in the extortion and exploitation of migrants. The 610 sex and labor trafficking victims whom the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) reported assisting in government and NGO shelters (401 in 2018), included 134 Thai and 476 foreign victims, and 170 victims of sex trafficking and 440 victims of labor trafficking. Law enforcement officials cooperated with foreign counterparts to investigate Thai traffickers and victims abroad, and foreign nationals involved in trafficking in Thailand. Others were in the recovery period, chose not to work, were too young to work, or were receiving educational training in shelters. The CCCIF operated 32 PIPO centers plus 19 additional forward inspection points, which performed inspections at port, at sea, and on land to verify whether fishing vessels were operating legally and workers had contracts, work permits, and identity documents. The government offered Thai victims who did not request assistance in shelters with legal assistance and compensation from the anti-trafficking fund. MSDHS and MOL operated hotlines with operators fluent in 20 foreign languages; the MSDHS hotline received 172 calls related to possible trafficking cases in 2017 (269 in 2016), leading to the identification of 109 child and 63 adult victims and prosecution of 73 cases. Refworld contains a vast collection of reports relating to situations in countries of origin, policy documents and positions, and documents relating to international and national legal frameworks. More than 900 victims of human trafficking have been rescued in 2019 – According to official statistics released by the Thai anti-trafficking department, since the beginning of 2019, the police have rescued 974 victims of human trafficking. Improve the capacity of law enforcement, labor inspectors, and first responders to consistently and proactively screen for and identify victims among vulnerable populations, including migrant workers, stateless persons, children, and refugees, and to ensure victims are not subjected to arrest, detainment, or deportations for crimes committed as a direct result of being subjected to trafficking; proactively investigate and prosecute officials allegedly complicit in trafficking, and convict and punish those found guilty with dissuasive sentences; improve the capacity of law enforcement to proactively prosecute and convict sex and labor traffickers; improve law enforcement and first responders' ability to identify and prosecute cases of forced labor, especially in cases lacking physical coercion or confinement; continue to train multidisciplinary teams and labor inspectors to improve the quality of fishing vessel inspections that could result in the identification of victims and criminal investigations; ensure government- and NGO-run shelters provide victims with adequate trauma-informed care, including legal assistance, and increase the provision of financial compensation and restitution to victims, including to those who are unable to work outside shelters; foster an environment conducive to reporting human trafficking crimes without fear of criminal prosecution and provide protections for multidisciplinary teams against interference or retaliation; regulate migrant worker labor recruiters, including by enforcing bans on worker-paid recruitment fees and by prosecuting cases with indicators of trafficking; improve migrant workers' rights, legal status, and labor migration policies to minimize the risk of trafficking; enforce regular payment of wages and the rights of employees to retain possession of their own identity and financial documents; and proactively inform migrant workers and other vulnerable populations of their rights, including under new migrant worker regulations, and legal protections from human trafficking. Typhoons and other natural disasters are becoming more intense and frequent in Southeast Asia because of climate change, adding to the flow of potential victims, including children who are orphaned or separated from their families. Most of the victims were from Myanmar. The discovery of mass graves of trafficking victims along the border between Malaysia and Thailand in 2015 is gruesome evidence of such collusion; a Thai general and police officers were among 62 people convicted of human trafficking and other crimes connected with the case, according to news reports. NGOs reported concerns over the lack of appropriate options for foreign children whose families were complicit in their trafficking or whose identities could not be established. Coordination between local law enforcement and prosecutors improved, but in some cases weak coordination impeded the success of trafficking prosecutions during the reporting period. MSDHS increased the number of available hotline interpreters to 68 in 2017. The government identified 455 victims in 2017 (824 in 2016), including 336 sex trafficking victims (335 in 2016) and 119 labor trafficking victims (489 in 2016). The government continued to grant citizenship to stateless persons in 2017 and issued a new regulation to provide legal residency to orphaned and non-Thai children born in Thailand. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Traffickers, including some registered and unregistered labor brokers of Thai and foreign nationalities, bring foreign victims into Thailand through both formal migration and smuggling routes and serve as intermediaries between job-seekers and employers. The government completed a manual outlining standard operating procedures (SOPs) for trafficking investigations and initiated a pilot in one region in early 2018 to test the procedures; the pilot was ongoing at the end of the reporting period. The government developed and launched a video shown on flights entering Thailand discouraging sex tourism. Some of those victims are right here in Ohio, and among them are the most innocent members of society — children. DGMM issued its first annual report on trafficking and continued to publish annual data reports on its website for 2013-2017; however, observers reported the government did not share detailed statistics on a regular basis and OSCE reported discrepancies in the statistics of the different databases managed by various state institutions, such as the Ministry of Interior, MOJ, and courts. Aside from these two international legal regimes, Southeast Asia in 2015 adopted the ASEAN Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. With the transnational nature of human trafficking, both international and regional regimes encourage governments to share information, coordinate policies and efforts to criminalize trafficking offenses, provide mutual legal assistance, protect victims, and prosecute offenders. Tao Gae – fishing boat owner or fleet owner. Key concepts in a nutshell. The study revealed that anti - A common critique of anti-trafficking regimes is that most efforts have focused on criminalizing and prosecuting traffickers, as opposed to preventing the crime and protecting its victims. Nonetheless, legal advocates and NGOs reported compensation and restitution for victims were inconsistently paid and remained too low to incentivize victims to cooperate in prosecutions and funds seized from traffickers' assets were not awarded to victims. The government continued efforts to reduce costs for Thais in overseas guest worker programs, but excessive fees incurred by some Thai workers to obtain employment abroad made them vulnerable to debt bondage or exploitative conditions. The focus on criminalization and prosecution may have increased awareness, but more should be done to prevent trafficking through effective law enforcement and efforts to educate vulnerable groups about its dangers. In Southeast Asia and elsewhere, nontraditional security threats have two defining features: they are transnational and complex. Most of the literature on modern-day slavery focuses on women and children as victims of the sex industry. In 2017, the government inspected 302 labor recruitment agencies that facilitated overseas and domestic employment of Thai workers and found unlawful practices in nine, resulting in license suspensions of eight agencies and the revocation of one agency's license. The United States Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons in its 2018 U.S. Sex Slaves THAILAND - Human Trafficking of 21st Century (Extraordinary Documentary) Yavuztuyluoglu. From the mid-1300s to the mid-1700s prostitutionwas legal and taxed by the Thai government. A comprehensive, more human-centered approach compels us to delve deeper into the other drivers of human trafficking, including poverty, severe exploitation, and political repression. Of the 450 victims in government shelters, 287 were employed either inside or outside shelters during the course of legal proceedings. Security threats are no longer just about military confrontation, territorial disputes, and nuclear proliferation. Contact the National Human Trafficking Hotline. Some trafficking victims in the fishing sector had difficulty returning home due to isolated workplaces, unpaid wages, and the lack of legitimate identity documents or safe means to travel. 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