dictyostelium discoideum taxonomy

By similarity. This complicated behavior has been analyzed by computer modeling of the behavior and the periodic pattern of temperature changes in soil caused by daily changes in air temperature. [1], Bei ausreichender Verfügbarkeit von Nahrung lebt Dictyostelium discoideum als Einzeller und vermehrt sich durch Zellteilung. Dictyostelium caveatum (Wadell 1982) Dictyostelium discoideum Raper 1935; Dictyostelium irregularis (Olive, Nelson and Stoianovitch 1967) Dictyostelium lacteum The bacteria reside within these phagosomes during the aggregation and the multicellular development stages. This organism's ability to be easily cultivated in the laboratory[5] adds to its appeal as a model organism. During the culmination stage, when the spores are produced, the bacteria pass from the cell to the sorus with the help of a cytoskeletal structure that prevents host cell destruction. For example, it has an affinity toward light, higher temperatures, high humidity, low ionic concentrations, and the acidic side of the pH gradient. At the end of this 8– to 10-hour process, the mature fruiting body is fully formed. Dictyostelium discoideum is a social amoeba and has been studied as a model organism to understand cellular motility, signaling, and interaction. Dictyostelium discoideum ist weltweit in allen Klimazonen von der kaltgemäßigten Klimazone bis in die Tropen verbreitet, weist aber ein Verbreitungsgefälle auf: am häufigsten ist es in den kühlgemäßigten Zonen, danach wird es bis hin zu den Tropen immer seltener.[5]. In der Hungerphase beginnen erst einige Amöben cAMP als Hungersignal auszuscheiden (sezernieren). Tandem repeats of trinucleotides are very abundant in this genome; one class of the genome is clustered, leading researchers to believe it serves as centromeres. Das Genom von Dictyostelium discoideum wurde 2005 von einem internationalen Forscherteam entschlüsselt. Transient association with amoebae has been reported for a number of different bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila, many Mycobacterium species, Francisella tularensis, and Escherichia coli, among others. Function i. [19] In 2013, a group at the Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre reported an antibody-free protein visualization standard for immunoblotting based on detection of MCCC1 using streptavidin conjugates.[20]. [5] Part of this sheath is left behind as a slimy trail as it moves toward attractants such as light, heat, and humidity in a forward-only direction. During aggregation, starvation initiates the creation of a biochemical machinery that includes glycoproteins and adenylyl cyclase. Reviewed-Annotation score: -Protein inferred from homology i. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer. During culmination, the prestalk cells secrete a cellulose coat and extend as a tube through the grex. A study has found that cAMP-mediated signaling changes from propagating waves to a steady state at a multicellular stage of D. ORF Names: DDB_G0293288. The cells can be harvested at any stage of development and grown quickly. [2] Expansion of trinucleotide repeats also occurs in humans, in general leading to many diseases. [5] The slug becomes differentiated into prestalk and prespore cells that move to the anterior and posterior ends, respectively. 1 Publication, , EC: The cultures grow best at 22–24 °C (room temperature). 8th ed. Sentinel cells are present in the slug even when there are no toxins or pathogens to be removed. Mathematical biologist Cornelis J. Weijer has proven that similar equations can model its movement. Das sezernierte cAMP leitet die Chemotaxis ein, die dazu führt, dass die Amöben beginnen, sich in die Richtung der ansteigenden cAMP-Konzentration zu bewegen. Gilbert S.F. This balance of the costs and benefits of the behavior may contribute to the fact that a minority of D. discoideum colonies engage in this practice.[22][23]. [Online] (1, May, 2009). [5] Anterior-like cells, which have only been recently discovered, are also dispersed throughout the posterior region of the slug. Description and Significance . 73 Starvation induces cell aggregation and formation of a mound. This indicates a constant regeneration of sentinel cells within the slugs as they are being removed along with toxins and pathogens. Its unique asexual lifecycle consists of four stages: vegetative, aggregation, migration, and culmination. The cells involved in the lifecycle undergo movement, chemical signaling, and development, which are applicable to human cancer research. Dictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold) Status. Every genome sequenced plays an important role in identifying genes that have been gained or lost over time. [26] Some results suggest the bacteria exploit the exocytosis without killing the cell. These anterior-like cells form the very bottom of the fruiting body and the caps of the spores. Dictyostelium discoideum is one of eight non‐mammalian model organisms recognized by the National Institute of Health for the study of human pathology. The research is not yet conclusive but it is possible to draw a general lifecycle of D. discoideum adapted for farmer clones to better understand this symbiotic process. D. discoideum is known for eating Gram-positive, as well as Gram-negative bacteria, but some of the phagocytized bacteria, including some human pathogens,[24] are able to live in the amoebae and exit without killing the cell. Berichterstatter: Frau Prof. Dr. A. The lifecycle of D. discoideum is relatively short, which allows for timely viewing of all stages. Alexander S, Alexander H (2011) Lead genetic studies in Dictyostelium discoideum and translational studies in human cells demonstrate that sphingolipids are key regulators of sensitivity to cisplatin and other anticancer drugs. Dieser Slug, von einer Schleimschicht umgeben, ist in der Lage, auf phototaktische, chemotaktische oder thermotaktische Reize mit Bewegung zu reagieren. Bereits zu diesem Zeitpunkt kommt es zu einer Veränderung der Aktivität der entwicklungs-relevanten Gene und damit zu einer Differenzierung der Zellen in die zwei verschiedenen Zelltypen: Prä-Sporenzellen und Prä-Stielzellen. [13]:174–175, An elegant set of mathematical equations that reproduces the spirals and the streaming patterns of D. discoideum was discovered by mathematical biologists Thomas Höfer and Martin Boerlijst. 2000. The detoxification process occurs when these cells engulf toxins and pathogens within the slug through phagocytosis. A phylogeny based on the proteome showed that the amoebozoa deviated from the animal-fungal lineage after the plant-animal split. Taxonomy > Dictyostelium discoideum; Dictyostelium discoideum SNFG, Text, Oxford. Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein level i. Dictyostelium discoideum Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität zu Köln vorgelegt von Thomas Schreiner aus Köln 2000 . Ein Vertreter dieser Gattung, Dictyostelium discoideum, ist ein bevorzugter Modellorganismus in der Zell- und Entwicklungsbiologie, sein Genom wurde 2005 von einem internationalen Forscherteam entschlüsselt. Dictyostelium discoideum ist eine weltweit vorkommende Art der Schleimpilze und lebt als Einzeller im Boden. The migration stage begins once the amoebae have formed a tight aggregate and the elongated mound of cells tip over to lie flat on the ground. Experiments are often done to see how manipulations of these parameters hinder, stop, or accelerate development. Dictyostelium discoideum is a species of soil-living amoeba belonging to the phylum Amoebozoa, infraphylum Mycetozoa.Commonly referred to as slime mold, D. discoideum is a eukaryote that transitions from a collection of unicellular amoebae into a multicellular slug and then into a fruiting body within its lifetime. D. discoideum feed primarily on E. coli, which is adequate for all stages of the lifecycle. This was the first free-living protozoan genome to be fully sequenced. Sunderland (MA):Sinauer p. 36-39. Nature’s report has made an important advance in the knowledge of amoebic behavior, and the famous Spanish phrase translated as “you are more stupid than an amoeba” is losing the sense because amoebae are an excellent example of social behavior with an amazing coordination and sense of sacrifice for the benefit of the species. Around 20% of cells in D. discoideum altruistically sacrifice themselves in the formation of the mature fruiting body. The simplicity of its lifecycle makes D. discoideum a valuable model organism to study genetic, cellular, and biochemical processes in other organisms. [18] Defects in DNA repair lead to devastating human cancers, so the ability to study human repair proteins in a simple tractable model will prove invaluable. [6], When incubated with their bacterial food supply, heterothallic or homothallic sexual development can occur, resulting in the formation of a diploid zygote. The amoebae work together as a motile pseudoplasmodium, also known as a slug. They differ from plasmodial slime molds because plasmodial slime molds are a multinucleated amoeboid mass, not an aggregation of individual cells. Dictyostelium were first discovered in North Carolina in … [5], Note, however, that CAMP oscillations may not be necessary for the collective cell migration at multicellular stages. [25] Den Abschluss des Entwicklungszyklus bildet der Sporokarp („Fruchtkörper“). bei Dictyostelium discoideum ˚ Abb. It carries similar genes and pathways, making it a good candidate for gene knockout.[11]. Dilip K. Nag, Disruption of Four Kinesin Genes in Dictyostelium. D. discoideum is closely related to higher metazoans. Dieser Faktor wird während der G2-Phase des Zellzyklus synthetisiert, sezerniert und akkumuliert im nahen Umgebungsfeld der Amöbe. Es bildet sich an der Basis eine Stielröhre, an deren Kopfende sich die Prä-Stielzellen befinden („mexican hat“). The role of the RER in the intracellular infection is not known, but the RER is not required as a source of proteins for the bacteria. The conclusion is that the behavior moves slugs a few centimeters below the soil surface up to the surface. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a normal part of species development. 2005 wurde die Sequenzierung der Chromosomen abgeschlossen und im Internet veröffentlicht. Taxonomy; Superdomain: Biota: Superkingdom: Eukaryota: Phylum: Amoebozoa: Class: Dictyostelia: Order: Dictyosteliida: Family: Dictyosteliidae : Genus: Dictyostelium: Authority control Q17146891 NCBI taxonomy ID: 5782 Encyclopedia of Life ID: 16699 Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID: 3212430 WoRMS-ID for taxa: 761419 Index Fungorum ID: 12072 New Zealand Organisms … During their vegetative stage, the myxamoebae divide by mitosis as they feed on bacteria. Dictyostelium discoideum, commonly known as slime mold, is a species of soil-living amoeba. Trotzdem bildet dieses amöbenförmige Lebewesen ein Modell für die Erforschung und das bessere Verständnis grundlegender zellulärer Prozesse. Format. Names & Taxonomy i. It is also used to study other aspects of development, including cell sorting, pattern formation, phagocytosis, motility, and signal transduction. Im weiteren Verlauf der Entwicklung entsteht aus dem „Mound“ ein „Slug“ (engl. When exposed to a toxic environment created by the use of ethidium bromide, it was shown that the number of sentinel cells per millimeter was lower for farmers than non-farmers. für „Hügel“). Dabei streckt sich der Slug in die Höhe (Finger-Stadium), um dann schneckenartig umherzuwandern (wandernder „slug“). Im Wechsel von Wachstums- zu Entwicklungsphase entsteht aus einer Population individueller Amöben ein echter vielzelliger Organismus aus zwei Geweben mit differenzierten Zellen: toten Stielzellen und keimungsfähigen Sporen. Uninucleate amoebae of D. discoideum consume bacteria found in its natural habitat, which includes deciduous forest soil and decaying leaves.[2]. Die aus den beiden äußeren Lagen der Zentralstruktur des Centrosoms hervorgegangenen mitotischen Centrosomen organisieren e ine zentrale Spindel mit Pol-zu-Pol-Mikrotubuli und Kinetochor-gebundenen Mikrotubuli. Wird ein definiertes Konzentrations-Verhältnis überschritten, wird die Hungerphase eingeleitet, die den Transit zur Entwicklungsphase darstellt. Fruchtkörper von Dictyostelium discoideum. Dictyostelium discoideum is a species of soil-dwelling amoeba belonging to the phylum Amoebozoa, infraphylum Mycetozoa. Dictyostelium discoideum wurde 1935 von Kenneth Bryan Raper erstbeschrieben, der sich in der Folge fast 50 Jahre der Erforschung der Art widmete. Dictyostelium discoideum AX2 Taxonomy ID: 366501 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid366501) current name. As they move toward the signal, they bump into each other and stick together by the use of glycoprotein adhesion molecules. [5] The anterior end of the Mexican hat forms a cellulose tube, which allows the more posterior cells to move up the outside of the tube to the top, and the prestalk cells move down. By the 1990s, most scientists accepted the present classification. Chemotaxis is defined as a passage of an organism toward or away from a chemical stimulus along a chemical concentration gradient. Die Sortierung wird über die unterschiedliche Sensitivität der zwei Zelltypen gegenüber cAMP gesteuert. NCBI: Taxonomy Genome. Dictybase, About Dictyostelium. [3] The glycoproteins allow for cell-cell adhesion, and adenylyl cyclase creates cyclic AMP. Tyler M.S. Dictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold) Status. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 3. When the supply of bacteria is depleted, the myxamoebae enter the aggregation stage. [27], The number of sentinel cells varies depending on the farming status of wild D. discoideum. Es ernährt sich von Bodenbakterien, die es aufnimmt, indem es sie umfließt und so in eine Vakuole einschließt (Phagozytose).[1]. [14][15], The use of cAMP as a chemotactic agent is not established in any other organism. Variations of these parameters can alter the rate and viability of culture growth. The secretion of the cAMP is then exhibited by all amoebae and is a call for them to begin aggregation. Cyclic AMP is secreted by the amoebae to attract neighboring cells to a central location. Developmental Biology: A guide for experimental study. Ausgelöst durch Nahrungsmangel schließen sich viele der einzelligen Amöben zu einem vielzelligen Verband (soziale Amöbe) zusammen und bilden an einem langen Stiel einen Fruchtkörper aus, aus dem Sporen entlassen werden. In D. discoideum, the amoeba secretes the signal, cAMP, out of the cell, attracting other amoebae to migrate toward the source. Von einigen Amöben sezerniertes cAMP lockt andere Amöben an, die dann ihrerseits cAMP produzieren und sezernieren. The giant cell then releases cAMP to attract other cells, then engulfs the other cells cannibalistically in the aggregate. Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data. 2003 May 1; 31, Dictyostelium Discoideum Genom Projekt Zentrum Biochemie Uni Köln, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dictyostelium_discoideum&oldid=205152544, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. 72 Dictyostelium discoideum, which shows an interesting life cycle, usually grows by predation on soil bacteria. Special Characteristcs: The life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum is very different from Physarum polycephalum. Das Dictyostelium-Genom-Projekt, das von einem internationalen Konsortium durchgeführt wird, hat sich 1998 zum Ziel gesetzt, das gesamte Genom von D. discoideum, Stamm AX4 zu sequenzieren, wobei die Sequenzierung der sechs Chromosomen auf verschiedene Arbeitsgruppen (Jena, Köln, Houston, Paris und Hinxton) verteilt wurde. [2] Sequencing of the D. discoideum genome provides a more intricate study of its cellular and developmental biology. Protein names i: Recommended name: Protein psiQ. Dictyostelium are known as cellular slime molds. When they enter the cell, where they reside, and when they leave the cell are not known. Besonderes Interesse liegt in der Erforschung des Übergangs von gleichartigen Zellen zur Ausdifferenzierung einer Makrostruktur mit Zellen unterschiedlicher Spezialisierung. Die Amöben sind in der Lage mittels eines Glykoproteins, dem Pre-Starvation-Faktor (PSF), das Verhältnis von Populationsdichte zu bakterieller Nahrungsquelle zu erkennen. Danach verbinden sich Vakuolen mit Verdauungsenzymen, den Lysosomen, und das Bakterium wird verdaut. Fußnoten direkt hinter einer Aussage belegen die einzelne Aussage, Fußnoten direkt hinter einem Satzzeichen den gesamten vorangehenden Satz. Finding mathematics in creatures great and small", "Collective cell migration of Dictyostelium without cAMP oscillations at multicellular stages", "Transcriptional pulsing of a developmental gene", "Amoebas show primitive farming behaviour as they travel", "Recent insights into host-pathogen interactions from Dyctiostelium", "Primitive Amoebae as Training Grounds for Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens", "Immune-like Phagocyte Activity in the Social Amoeba", "Sentinel cells, symbiotic bacteria and toxin resistance in the social amoeba, "Origin and evolution of the slime molds (Mycetozoa)", "Eumycetozoa = Amoebozoa?
dictyostelium discoideum taxonomy 2021